µ-TE lab

Micro-scale tissue models for human diseases and toxicology

Journal Publications

(* indicates corresponding author)


Ong, L.J.Y., Islam, A.B., DasGupta, R., Iyer, N.G., Leo., H.L., Toh, Y.C.*, A 3D Printed Microfluidic Perfusion Device for Multicellular Spheroid Cultures, 2017, Biofabrication
(under revision)

Ong, L.J.Y., Chong, L.H., Jin, L., Singh, P.K., Lee, P.S., Yu, H., Ananthanarayanan, A., Leo, H.L., Toh, Y.C.*, A pump-free microfluidic 3D perfusion platform for the efficient differentiation of human hepatocyte-like cells, 2017, Bioengineering & Biotechnology
(under revision)

Choudhury, Y.#, Toh, Y.C.#, Xing, J., Qu, Y., Poh, J., Huan, L., Tan, H.S., Kanesvaran, R., Yu, H. and Tan, M.H., 2017. Patient-specific hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells model pazopanib-mediated hepatotoxicityScientific reports7.
#co-first author


Tasnim, F., Toh, Y.C., Qu, Y., Li, H., Phan, D., Narmada, B.C., Ananthanarayanan, A., Mittal, N., Meng, R.Q. and Yu, H., 2016. Functionally enhanced human stem cell derived hepatocytes in galactosylated cellulosic sponges for hepatotoxicity testingMolecular pharmaceutics13(6), pp.1947-1957.

Sahni, G., Yuan, J. and Toh, Y.C.*, 2016. Stencil Micropatterning of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Probing Spatial Organization of Differentiation FatesJoVE (Journal of Visualized Experiments), 112: pp.e54097-e54097.


Tasnim, F., Phan, D., Toh, Y.C. and Yu, H., 2015. Cost-effective differentiation of hepatocyte-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells using small moleculesBiomaterials70, pp.115-125.

Xing, J., Toh, Y.C., Xu, S. and Yu, H., 2015. A method for human teratogen detection by geometrically confined cell differentiation and migrationScientific Reports, accepted.

Toh, Y.C., Xing, J. and Yu, H., 2015. Modulation of integrin and E-cadherin-mediated adhesions to spatially control heterogeneity in human pluripotent stem cell differentiationBiomaterials, 50(0): 87-97.


Anene-Nzelu, C.G., Peh, K.Y., Fraiszudeen, A., Kuan, Y.H., Ng, S.H., Toh, Y.C.*, Leo, H.L. and Yu, H., 2013. A scalable method for aligning 3D micro-tissues in microfluidic chipsLab on a Chip, 13(20): 4124 – 4133

Anene-Nzelu, C.G., Choudhury, D., Li, H., Fraiszudeen, A., Peh, K.Y., Toh, Y.C., Ng, S.H., Leo, H.L. and Yu, H., 2013. Scalable cell alignment on optical media substratesBiomaterials, 34(21): 5078-5087

Wang, Y., Toh, Y.C., Li, Q., Nugraha, B., Zheng, B., Lu, T.B., Gao, Y., Ng, M.M.L. and Yu, H., 2013. Mechanical compaction directly modulates the dynamics of bile canaliculi formationIntegrative Biology, 5 (2): 390 – 400. Featured in Global Medical Discovery (ISSN 1929-8536),
Featured in Global Medical Discovery (ISSN 1929-8536), Jan 2013


Toh, Y.C., Blagovic, K., Yu, H. and Voldman, J., 2011. Spatially organized in vitro models instruct asymmetric stem cell differentiationIntegrative Biology, 3: 1179-1187

Toh, Y.C., Kang, T.G., van Noort, D., Burkholder, B. and Zhang, J.B., 2011. Leveraging on being small—Singapore’s strategy to catalyze integrative innovationsLab on a Chip, 11: 1853-1855
(Invited article)

Toh, Y.C. and Voldman, J., 2011. Fluid shear stress primes mouse embryonic stem cells for differentiation in a self-renewing environment via heparan sulfate proteoglycans transductionFASEB Journal, 25: 1208-1217


Toh, Y.C., Blagović, K. and Voldman, J., 2010. Advancing Stem Cell Research with microtechnologies: opportunities and challengesIntegrative Biology, 2: 305-325


Toh, Y.C., Lim, T.C., Tai, D., Xiao, G., van Noort, D. and Yu, H., 2009. A microfluidic 3D hepatocyte chip for drug toxicity testingLab on a Chip, 9(14): 2026-2035

Zhang, C., Chia, S.M., Ong, S.M., Zhang, S., Toh, Y.C., van Noort, D. and Yu, H., 2009. The controlled presentation of TGF-b1 to hepatocytes in a 3D microfludic cell culture systemBiomaterials, 2009, 30: 3847-3853


Zhang, S., Xia, L., Kang, C.H., Xiao, G., Ong, S.M., Toh, Y.C., Leo, H.L., van Noort, D., Kan, S.H., Tang, H.H. and Yu, H., 2008. Microfabricated silicon nitride membranes for hepatocyte sandwich cultureBiomaterials, 29(29): 3993-4002

Zhao, D., Ong, S.M., Yue, Z., Jiang, Z., Toh, Y.C., Khan, M., Shi, J., Tan, C.H., Chen, J.P. and Yu, H., 2008. Dendrimer hydrazides as multivalent transient inter cellular linkersBiomaterials, 2008, 29 (27): 3693-3702

Ong, S.M., Zhang, C., Toh, Y.C., Kim, S.H., Foo, H.L., Tan, C.H., van Noort, D., Park, S. and Yu, H., 2008. A gel-free 3D microfluidic cell culture systemBiomaterials, 29(22): 3237-3244

Toh, Y.C., Zhang, J., Khong, Y.M., Du, Y., Sun, W. and Yu, H., 2008. Integrating sensitive quantification of hepatic metabolic functions by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detectionAnalyst, 133: 326-330

Wen, F., Chang, S., Toh, Y.C., Arooz, T., Zhuo, L., Teoh, S.H. and Yu, H., 2008. Development of dual-compartment perfusion bioreactor for serial coculture of hepatocytes and stellate cells in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-collagen scaffoldsJournal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 2008, 87(1): 154-162


Kim, L., Toh, Y.C., Voldman, J. and Yu, H., 2007. A Practical Guide to Microfluidic Perfusion Culture of Adherent Mammalian CellsLab on a Chip, 2007, 7: 681-694.

Y.C. Toh, C. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y.M. Khong, S. Chang, V.D. Samper, D. van Noort, D.W. Hutmacher and H.Yu. A novel 3D mammalian cell perfusion-culture system in microfluidic channelsLab on a Chip, 7(3): 302-309. Featured in RSC’s Chemical Biology, 2007, Issue 4
Featured in RSC’s Chemical Biology, 2007, Issue 4

Wen, F., Chang, S., Toh, Y.C., Teoh, S.H. and Yu, H., 2007. Development of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid)-collagen scaffolds for tissue engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 27(2): 285–292.


Toh, Y.C., Ng, S., Khong, Y.M., Zhang, X., Zhu, Y., Lin, P.C., Te, C.M., Sun, W. and Yu, H., 2006. Cellular responses to a nanofibrous environmentNanoToday, 1(3): 34-43.


Toh, Y.C., Ng, S., Khong, Y.M., Samper, V. and Yu, H., 2005. A Configurable 3D Microenvironment in a Micro-fluidic Channel for Primary Hepatocytes CultureAssay and Drug Development Technologies, 3(2): 169-176.

Toh, Y.C., Ho, S.T., Zhou, Y., Hutmacher, D.W. and Yu, H., 2005. Application of polyelectrolyte complex coacervation to improve the seeding efficiency of bone marrow stromal cells in 3D scaffoldsBiomaterials, 26(19): 4149–4160.


Toh, Y.C., Yen, J.J.L., Obbard, J.P. and Ting, Y.P., 2003. Decolourisation of azo dyes by white-rot fungi (WRF) isolated in SingaporeEnzyme and Microbial Technology, 2003, 33(5): 569-575.


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